The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. There he opposed the liberal movement, advocated unification of Germany under the aegis of Prussia, and defended the privileges of his elite social class, the Junkers. As Prussian minister to the German diet at Frankfurt —59 and as ambassador to St.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Thus, he had 11 years of experience in foreign affairs before he became prime minister and foreign minster of Prussia in September He had come to know personally the architects of French, Russian, and Austrian foreign policy.
For more than two years William had been locked in a battle with the Chamber of Deputies over military reform. Having been in the army much of his adult life, the monarch similar to earlier Prussian kings considered it entirely within his prerogative to increase the size of the military and the years of service.
When the liberal majority did not approve the revenue for these reforms, William refused to negotiate or compromise with liberal politicians over the fundamental issue of sovereignty. He prorogued Parliament twice, and each time the liberal majority increased.
The Chamber of Deputies interpreted it as an act of defiance—a throwing down of the gauntlet. But the Bismarck who returned to Berlin from Paris was not the backwoods conservative of Having lived in Frankfurt and Paris, he had come to appreciate the growing importance of the propertied and educated middle class.
Bismarck had changed to such a degree that he actually returned with the idea of seeking a compromise over the military issue. But William I rejected a sensible proposal offered by Bismarck, leaving him no alternative but a policy of confrontation.
If the king and the members of the Upper Chamber and the Chamber of Deputies, who together were responsible for the budget, failed to come to an agreement, the government in the interim had to proceed without it. Taxes were to be collected and spent on the basis of the old budget because civil servants had to be paid and the government had to continue functioning.
This tactic, applied from toallowed him to implement the military reforms without the sanction of Parliament. Bismarck did, indeed, appear to be the reactionary, confrontational aristocrat out of tune with his time.
But there were hints that this was more appearance than reality. The liberal opposition, however, chose to ignore these hints, and on May 22,by a vote of to 61, they informed William I that they would not deal with his prime minister any further.
After eight months in office, Bismarck had failed to achieve any agreement with the parliamentary opposition. Trouble had been brewing since between the Danes and the German population of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein.
Both duchies were in union with Denmark ; Schleswig, however, had a large German population, and Holstein was a member of the German Confederation.
When the Danish king acted rashly, Bismarck made sure that it was Prussia and Austria rather than the German Confederation which represented German interests. After much haggling, the Convention of Gastein was signed on August 20, ; it provided for Schleswig to be administered by Prussia and Holstein by Austria.
Liberals remained unappeased by Prussian military prowess and once again defeated the army bill in January In Bismarck nonetheless continued his efforts to divert liberal interest from the budget conflict and toward the success of Prussian arms. He repeatedly told the Austrians that their future lay in the south and that they would be wise to yield dominance in Germany.
But in both cases his words fell on deaf ears. Bismarck had clearly decided to play the German national card in order to achieve a Prussian-dominated Germany.
After making sure that Russia would not intervene and after gaining an alliance with Italyhe set about fostering conflict with the Austrians. He stirred up Hungarian nationalism against Austria—a policy that showed how radical means could be used in the service of his own conservative ends.
On June 9,Prussian troops invaded Holstein, and a few days later Austria, supported by the smaller states of SaxonyHesse-Kasseland Hanover, went to war. Bismarck then counseled moderation so that Austria would not be humiliated. Against a king and generals who wanted to march to Vienna, he urged a quick cessation of hostilities, recognizing that other powers might intervene if the war continued.
Austria, the major power in Germany for centuries, was now relegated to secondary status.This riveting, New York Times bestselling biography illuminates the life of Otto von Bismarck, the statesman who unified Germany but who also embodied everything brutal and ruthless about Prussian culture.
Jonathan Steinberg draws heavily on contemporary writings, allowing Bismarck's friends and foes to tell the story. What rises from these . Otto Braun (28 January – 15 December ) was a German Social Democratic politician who served as Prime Minister of Prussia for most of the time from to After the Nazis seized power in , Braun went into exile in Switzerland.
Nassau remained a complex domain until into the 19th century. The county of Nassau was divided in ("prima divisio") by Walram and Otto.
Laar, Mart (b. April 22, , Viljandi, southern Estonian S.S.R.), prime minister of Estonia (, ). Many credit Laar for leading Estonia through lightning economic reforms that won Western praise and ultimately laid the groundwork for rapid economic growth and acceptance to European Union entry talks.
Otto von Bismarck as Minister President of Prussia, shown wearing insignia of a knight of the Johanniterorden Prince Wilhelm became King of Prussia upon his Political party: Independent.
Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of Prussia, successfully manipulated his enemies to unify Germany, using his ally Austria to defeat Denmark, then caused Austria to declare war on Prussia, and finally manipulated France into another war, thus creating the political climate to unite the many German.