Regardless of time estimates, these hostile nations are sure to acquire such capabilities. Given such a threat, the only alternative to deploying National Missile Defence systems would be pre-emptive military intervention against these regimes. This would not only lead to an international outcry, following the catastrophic situation in Iraq, it would also be very risky to attack a potentially nuclear-armed opponent. NMD is a clearly preferable strategic option; US possession of it may even deter these hostile states from acquiring nuclear weapons in the first place.
Conceptual development[ edit ] The conceptual basis of short-wavelength lasers, using X-rays and gamma raysare the same as their visible-light counterparts. There were discussions of such devices as early asthe year the first ruby laser was demonstrated. Researchers spread thin layers of copper atoms on microscope slides and then heated them with pulses from a neodymium glass laser.
This caused spots to appear on x-ray film in the direction of the layers and none in other directions. The announcement caused great excitement, but it was soon overshadowed by the fact that no other labs could reproduce the results, and the announcement was soon forgotten.
By late they had all but given up. They commissioned a report by Physical Dynamics, which outlined a number of possible uses of such a laser, including space-based weapons. None of these seemed promising, and DARPA dropped funding for X-ray laser research in favor of the more promising free electron laser.
They were careful to point out that the results were very preliminary and that further study was required.
Over the next few years, a small number of additional papers on the topic were presented. The most pointed of these was Sobel'man's statements at a conference in Novosibirsk when he stated that he was observing lasing in a calcium plasma.
As with earlier announcements, these results were met with skepticism. He was familiar with the unique underground nuclear tests made on behalf of the Defense Nuclear Agency DNAwhere the burst of X-rays produced by the nuclear reactions were allowed to travel down a long tunnel while the blast itself was cut off by large doors that slammed shut as the explosion approached.
These tests were used to investigate the effects of X-rays from exoatmospheric nuclear explosions on reentry vehicles. He realized this was a perfect way to illuminate an X-ray laser. They suggested such a device would be a powerful tool in materials sciencefor making holograms of viruses where a conventional laser's longer wavelength did not provide the required optical resolutionand as a sort of flash bulb for taking images of the nuclear fusion process in their inertial confinement fusion devices.
This review contained the calculations that demonstrated both the rapid reaction times needed in such a device and the extremely high energies required for pumping. The review did not mention their concept of nuclear pumping. At this time the DNA was making plans for another of its X-ray effects tests.
Chapline's device could easily be tested in the same "shot". The test shot, Diablo Hawk, was carried out on 13 September as part of the Operation Cresset series. However, the instrumentation on Chapline's device failed, and there was no way to know if the system had worked or not.
Chapline was given the go-ahead to plan for a new test that would be dedicated to the X-ray laser concept. In the DNA tests, the reentry vehicle had to be retrieved for study after the test, which demanded the complex system of protective doors and other techniques that made these tests very expensive.
For the X-ray laser test, all of this could be ignored, and the laser placed at the top of the vertical access shaft. Teller was on the Hertz board, and Hagelstein soon had an interview with Lowell Wood.
Hagelstein won the scholarship, and Wood then went on to offer him a summer position at LLNL as well. He had never heard of the lab, and Wood explained they were working on lasers, fusion, and similar concepts. Hagelstein arrived in Maybut nearly left when he found the area to be "disgusting" and immediately surmised they were working on weapons research when he saw the barbed wire and armed guards.
He stayed on only because he met interesting people. The idea was to use the lab's powerful fusion lasers as a power source, as Hagelstein and Wood had suggested in their review paper.CIA DOCUMENTS ON THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS November 1, Soviet missiles leaving Cuba after the white-knuckled standoff.
Shadow of the US . Whether or not America needs a National Missile Defense (NMD) system in light of events of September 11, seems, in its simplest sense and on the one hand, to be a foregone conclusion.
In this paper, I review three major purposes for arms control negotiations — disarmament, stability, and advantage. In the first part of the paper, I compare the three purposes against the causes of war literature to show that each provides a defensible.
US Electromagnetic Weapons and Human Rights By Peter Phillips, Lew Brown and Bridget Thornton. This research explores the current capabilities of the US military to use electromagnetic (EMF) devices to harass, intimidate, and kill individuals and the continuing possibilities of violations of human rights by the testing and deployment of these weapons.
as an argument not to deploy a defense, need to The debate should not be whether or not to deploy defenses. It should be about the nature NATIONAL MISSILE DEFENSE Examining the Options by Charles V.
Peña and Barbara Conry _____ Charles V. Peña is an independent consultant on missile defense and Barbara Conry is an associate policy. There are some truths that I strive to preach, for lack of a better word, in today's information-culture wars propagated in our corrupt mainstream media.