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Adapted with permission from Single manner pforzheim. Copyright American Chemical Society. E is the energy of the respective mode and A0 and A1 are constants.
The relation follows well the data. For the longitudinal modes, the map resembles the one of the pure Au wire. However, at the higher energies around approx.
Adapted with permission from . For all modes including the transversal, the energies measured for the porous wire are systematically lower than the corresponding mode energies of the continuous Au wire. This result is in agreement with further studies that we have conducted on the dipolar mode of Au nanowires by infrared spectroscopy Single manner pforzheim 53 ] as well as results reported by other authors on shorter rods [ 54 ].
We believe that it can be explained by a change in the intrinsic parameters such as the lower bulk plasma frequency that follows from introducing an effective medium consisting of gold and empty voids to describe the porous material [ 5355 ].
Surface plasmon dispersion EELS maps along individual nanowires allow deducing a surface plasmon dispersion relation. For this, the distance between two maxima, which corresponds to the half-surface plasmon wavelength of the respective mode, is measured [ 134041 ].
For both materials, it was demonstrated that the distance between the maxima at the nanowire edges is shorter than the one between two maxima in the middle. It has been explained by a phase jump of the surface plasmon mode that is most probably due to the shape of the edges of the nanowire [ 13 ].
For both Ag and Al, it has been shown that the dispersion follows the shape of the calculated dispersion relation of fundamental surface plasmon polaritons sustained by an infinite Ag or respectively Al cylinder and that the low-order modes are close to the light line, which makes them easily excitable with light.
In contrast for the porous wire, the curve lies by trend below the one of the pure Au wire which we assign to a lower bulk plasma frequency as mentioned previously. Coupled nanowire systems Interaction between surface plasmons in several nanostructures that are separated by distances smaller than the decay length of the electric field is attracting a lot of attention in the field of plasmonics see e.
In such systems, the plasmonic modes couple resulting in a splitting or hybridization in analogy to molecular orbitals in new plasmonic modes, called bonding and antibonding modes [ 161956 ]. Nanowires are very interesting structures to study such hybridization phenomena, since their elongated shape results in a large energetic splitting of the modes even for higher multipole orders, which makes the splitting clearly resolvable in the energy loss spectrum.
We have used systems consisting of two nanowires separated by small gaps [ 1435 ] or connected by small conductive bridges [ 34 ] to study such coupling effects.
After presenting our synthesis technique, we start the discussion with a dimer consisting of two wires with almost identical L and separated by a small gap, and continue with more complex structures such as wires connected by bridges or consisting of wires of different L.
Synthesis of nanowire dimers The template method enables the synthesis of axially segmented nanowires composed by two or more materials.
Since then, many different segmented structures combining, for example, polymers, semiconductors, and metals, have been fabricated by the template method [ 6162 ]. Segmented nanowires can be grown either by sequential exchange of the electrolyte [ 6364 ] or using a single-bath electrolyte and controlling the composition of the segments by tuning reduction potential and electrolyte composition [ 6566 ].The Schmuckmuseum by Fran Schreiber.
The Schmuck Museum in Pforzheim, Germany is the only museum in the world devoted exclusively to jewelry. The collection spans several centuries from the third millennium through the early 21st century, but it is strongest in the19th and 20th centuries and primarily focuses on Western European countries.
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