University of Waikato —[ edit ] He was appointed to the faculty of the Physics Department of the University of Waikato inand was awarded a personal chair in physics ina position held until When Gardiner arrived, the University of Waikato was only 5 years old, while the School of Science, which covered Physics, Mathematics, Chemistry, Biology and Earth Science, had only commenced teaching at the beginning ofand no research facilities had been established. During this period He and Peter Drummond developed the positive P-representation  He and Matthew Collett developed the input-output formalism  for damped quantum systems, which they used  to predict and describe the spectrum of squeezed light.
Causes[ edit ] Neurotoxic ptosis caused by botulinum toxin: The teenager was fully conscious Phineas Gage displayed ptosis after a large iron rod entered his left cheek, passed behind his left eye, and exited at the top of his head Ptosis occurs due to dysfunction of the muscles that raise the eyelid or their nerve supply oculomotor nerve for levator palpebrae superioris and Norrie thesis nerves for superior tarsal muscle.
It can affect one eye or both eyes and is more common in the elderly, as muscles in the eyelids may begin to deteriorate. One can, however, be born with ptosis. Congenital ptosis is hereditary in three main forms.
Ptosis may be caused by damage to the muscle which raises the eyelid, damage to the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion or damage to the nerve 3rd cranial nerve oculomotor nerve which controls this muscle.
Such damage could be a sign or symptom of an underlying disease such as diabetes mellitusa brain tumora pancoast tumor apex of lung and diseases which may cause weakness in muscles or nerve damage, such as myasthenia gravis or oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy.
A. Norrie Pearce. Back to tab navigation. Fetching data from CrossRef. This may take some time to load. Back to tab navigation. diagrams etc. contained in this article in third party publications or in a thesis or dissertation provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material. Norrie disease is a deletion or point mutation of Xp , which leads to a possibility of cataplexy and REM sleep abnormalities by changes in serotonin and peripheral catecholamine levels. Prader-Willi syndrome is a deletion of 15q q13 which results in a failure of hypothalamic development. Gunther’s expertly argued thesis rests on the observation that English evangelicals ‘were envisioning the reformation in ways that were far more radical than we have hitherto recognized’, and that they ‘had been part of the English Reformation’ from its beginning (p. 9).
Exposure to the toxins in some snake venoms, such as that of the black mambamay also cause this effect. Ptosis can be caused by the aponeurosis of the levator musclenerve abnormalities, traumainflammation or lesions of the lid or orbit. This can occur as a result of senescence, dehiscence or disinsertion of Norrie thesis levator aponeurosis.
Moreover, chronic inflammation or intraocular surgery can lead to the same effect. Also, wearing contact lenses for long periods of time is thought to have a certain impact on the development of this condition.
Congenital neurogenic ptosis is believed to be caused by the Horner syndrome. Acquired Horner syndrome may result after trauma, neoplastic insult, or even vascular disease. Ptosis due to trauma can ensue after an eyelid laceration with transection of the upper eyelid elevators or disruption of the neural input.
Mild ptosis may occur with aging. A drooping eyelid can be one of the first signals of a third nerve palsy due to a cerebral aneurysm, that otherwise is asymptomatic and referred to as an oculomotor nerve palsy.
Drugs[ edit ] Use of high doses of opioid drugs such as morphineoxycodoneheroinor hydrocodone can cause ptosis. Myogenic ptosis which includes oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophymyasthenia gravismyotonic dystrophyocular myopathy, simple congenital ptosis, blepharophimosis syndrome Aponeurotic ptosis which may be involutional or post-operative Mechanical ptosis which occurs due to edema or tumors of the upper lid Neurotoxic ptosis which is a classic symptom of envenomation  by elapid snakes such as cobras kraits mambas and taipans.
Regardless, neurotoxic ptosis is a precursor to respiratory failure and eventual suffocation caused by complete paralysis of the thoracic diaphragm.
It is therefore a medical emergency and immediate treatment is required. Similarly, ptosis may occur in victims of Botulism caused by Botulinum toxin and this is also regarded as a life-threatening symptom Pseudo ptosis due to: Lack of lid support: Higher lid position on the other side: This particular type of ptosis is distinguished from the others with the help of a Tensilon challenge test and blood tests.
Also, specific to myasthenia gravis is the fact that coldness inhibits the activity of cholinesterasewhich makes possible differentiating this type of ptosis by applying ice onto the eyelids. Patients with myasthenic ptosis are very likely to still experience a variation of the drooping of the eyelid at different hours of the day.
The ptosis caused by the oculomotor palsy can be unilateral or bilateral, as the subnucleus to the levator muscle is a shared, midline structure in the brainstem. In cases in which the palsy is caused by the compression of the nerve by a tumor or aneurysm, it is highly likely to result in an abnormal ipsilateral papillary response and a larger pupil.
Surgical third nerve palsy is characterized by a sudden onset of unilateral ptosis and an enlarged or sluggish pupil to the light.
Medical third nerve palsy, contrary to surgical third nerve palsy, usually does not affect the pupil and it tends to slowly improve in several weeks.
Surgery to correct ptosis due to medical third nerve palsy is normally considered only if the improvement of ptosis and ocular motility are unsatisfactory after half a year. Patients with third nerve palsy tend to have diminished or absent function of the levator.
The pupil might be smaller on the affected side. Most patients develop ptosis due to this disease in their adulthood. Characteristic to ptosis caused by this condition is the fact that the protective up rolling of the eyeball when the eyelids are closed is very poor.
Treatment[ edit ] Aponeurotic and congenital ptosis may require surgical correction if severe enough to interfere with vision or if cosmetics is a concern.
Treatment depends on the type of ptosis and is usually performed by an ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgeon, specializing in diseases and problems of the eyelid.Norrie Byrne is on Facebook. Join Facebook to connect with Norrie Byrne and others you may know.
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diagrams etc. contained in this article in third party publications or in a thesis or dissertation provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material. Your materiality architecture thesis true sources of stress arent always obvious, and its all too easy to overlook your own stress-inducing thoughts.
You could discuss these matters with more experienced work colleagues who could give you extra information on health and safety.
Peter Norrie. Principal Lecturer and Senior Research Fellow, School of Nursing and Midwifery, De Montfort University, UK. PhD Thesis, De Montfort University, UK. Google Scholar. Al-Hamdan, Z, Shukri, R, Anthony, DM () Conflict management styles . Thesis Assessment of diabetes care in Saudi Arabia: by analysis of routine healthcare data, patient case notes and interviews with key stakeholders Author: Alshehri, A., Norrie disease is a deletion or point mutation of Xp , which leads to a possibility of cataplexy and REM sleep abnormalities by changes in serotonin and peripheral catecholamine levels.
Prader-Willi syndrome is a deletion of 15q q13 which results in a failure of hypothalamic development.