Myths and realities of higher education

Usually, authors develop their thesis in two ways: These statements could be likened to bricks that the author uses to build a logical structure resulting in a conclusion.

Myths and realities of higher education

Afterward, I will add my own comments about additional common EMP myths. HEMP is an acronym for high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulse.

Some discussions of HEMP have the right words and concepts, but do not quite have them put together right, or have inaccurate interpretations. Here we will discuss some common misunderstandings.

Some general emphasis of comments fall into either "the world as we know it will come to an end" if there is a high altitude nuclear burst, or the other extreme: Since we really have never had a nuclear burst over anything like our current modern infrastructure, no one really knows for sure what would happen, but both extremes are not very believable.

The assumption that E1 is an issue only for cold war type situations, but not for terrorists or rogue nations, is false.

Very big bombs might have better area coverage of high fields by going to higher burst heights, but for peak fields the burst yield is only a very minor consideration.

What is ETD?

However, there are many problems with extrapolating that experience: That was about half a century ago. Since then the use of electronics has increased greatly, and the type of sensitive electronics we currently use did not really exist back then.

In addition, widely separated substations would have been exposed, although with electromechanical relays not solid state.

Myths and realities of higher education

Some say that all vehicles traveling will come to a halt, with all modern vehicles damaged because of their use of modern electronics and one movie even had a bulk, non-electronic part dying. Most likely there will be some vehicles affected, but probably just a small fraction of them although this could create traffic jams in large cities.

A car does not have very long cabling to act as antennas, and there is some protection from metallic construction.

As non-metallic materials are used more and more in the future to decrease weight and increase fuel efficiency, this advantage may disappear.

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A watch is much too small for HEMP to affect it. One critic, with some awareness of the generation process, said that HEMP could not be present unless there were also energetic electrons present.

However for the HEMP, the radiation and energetic electrons are present at altitudes of 20 to 40 km, not at the ground.

There is truth to this recommendation if there were a way to know that a burst was about to happen. However, damage can also happen, but not as easily, to systems that are turned off. There is a suggestion that equipment will be OK if all connected conductors are less than a specific length.

Certainly shorter lengths are generally better, but there is no magic length value, with shorter always being better and longer not. There can be exceptions, such as resonance effects, which depend on line lengths. Stay away from metal: There is a recommendation to be some distance away from any metal when a HEMP event occurs assuming there was warningbecause very high voltages could be generated.

However, the "skin effect" a term not really derived from the skin of humans or any other animal means that if a human were touching a large "antenna" during an E1 HEMP event, any current flow would not penetrate into the body. First, though, allow me to make a brief comment about the awful EMP myths generated by movies and television. (also known as "Art on the Net")

That video is not available to the public. Now, more on these and additional common myths: The E1 component of high-altitude nuclear EMP is dependent upon the gamma ray output of the weapon.

E1 is dependent upon several aspects of the gamma ray output.

Myths and realities of higher education

The gamma ray output of the bomb can often be increased by sacrificing some of the total energy yield. For example, making the casing of the bomb much thinner can greatly increase the gamma ray output, but can cause the weapon to blow itself apart before the nuclear reaction is complete, reducing the total energy yield.

Nuclear weapons are complex weapons, and there are several techniques for optimizing different components of EMP. It is important to note that, during United States high-altitude nuclear testing, the first indication of the dramatic effects of high-altitude EMP was obtained by a weapon of only 1.

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