By the end of the 15th century, the Middle Ages came to a close as the modern world emerged. The legacy of the Middle Ages, the "Age of Faith," left its mark on the future of religion in Europe and afteron the Americas. That year, Spain militarily defeated the Moors and initiated a period of expulsion for those who would not convert to Christianity.
View all About the Images These images of the California missions show the transformation of the mission structures over the past two centuries. Some show the types of people who would have lived in or visited the missions.
Overview Establishing religious authority to convert Native Californians to Catholicism was central to Spanish colonization. This mission system was established in the late 18th century, largely under the guidance of Father Junipero Serra.
Serra, a politically powerful Franciscan priest, personally founded ine missions, expanding the system into Alta California.
Father Serra performed thousands of Native American baptisms. His burial site at Mission Carmel continued to be a veneration site long after his death inas we see in the photographs of soldiers and people surrounding his grave in Coerced Native American labor was crucial to the construction and survival of each mission.
Without this captive labor, many missions did not survive. Several images show mission buildings crumbling or overgrown with vegetation by the late 19th century. Although several missions decayed beyond repair, many continue to be restored by the communities that have evolved alongside them.
For instance, the photograph of the heavily scaffolded facade of Mission San Diego demonstrates the community restoration efforts to save the main entrance.
Community members of all ages joined in the rededication ceremony that followed. In the early 20th century, a Native American band and assimilated Native American children were photographed alongside Mission San Diego; a mother and daughter enjoyed the courtyard fountain of Mission Santa Barbara later in the century; and Mission Dolores Park provided housing for refugees after the earthquake in San Francisco.
Today, mission architectural styles influence modern structures throughout California. Spanish tile roofs, arched walkways, and interior courtyards are the foundation of all mission-style architecture. These materials and techniques were refashioned for the Southern California housing boom in the s, as seen in the Mission Viejo model home photograph — and, as the final photograph shows, on a much smaller scale in elementary school classrooms each year, as California students research and recreate the missions.
Go to first item Note about picture captions The original captions on some of the historical photographs may include racial terms that were commonplace at the time, but considered to be derogatory today.
You are free to share and adapt it however you like, provided you provide attribution as follows: Please note that this license applies only to the descriptive copy and does not apply to any and all digital items that may appear.APUSH Fall Terms.
Terms to know for Fall Final. STUDY. PLAY. Encomienda System. laws instituted by the king of Spain after he was convinced by Bartolomé de las Casas.
They outlawed the forced labor of the Native Americans, noted that the natives should be given religious instruction, and made it difficult for people to inherit encomienda.
Upper California, the current State of California, was the last territory settled by Spain in the United States. The strategy for California was a model example of the Spanish frontier system: on one hand, a military expedition commanded by Gaspar de Portolá established a limited number of presidios securing the territory.
The encomienda system was one of the many horrors inflicted on the native people of the New World during the conquest and colonial eras. It was essentially slavery, given but a thin (and illusory) veneer of respectability for the Catholic education that it implied.
South view of the town, with the church and mission-buildings of San Buena Ventura. A cavalcade of the Good Olden Times. F.G. Becher and Alfred Robinson, on a trip northward, with vaqueros and remonta from the Missn.
of San Gabriel. California Indians, Before, During, and After the Mission Era Introduction The California Missions Foundation is committed to the full and accurate depiction of history in early California. CMF will continue to work with California Indian scholars, leaders, and cultural experts to develop this site into a robust source of information about California Indian .
In a wider definition, a Californio is any Hispanic resident native of California, who is culturally or genetically descended from the Spanish-speaking community that was established in California from the first () Spanish mission in Baja California to