Directors Garrett and Klein were absent. President Puck declared a quorum present. Secretary Lee read the mission statement. Motion by Dunham, second by Heistand to approve the agenda as published and the minutes from previous meetings.
Pinterest A 77,year-old piece of red ochre with a deliberately engraved design discovered at Blombos Cave, South Africa.
The problem here is that race scientists are not comparing like with like.
Most of these physical changes involve single gene mutations, which can spread throughout a population in a relatively short span of evolutionary time. By contrast, intelligence — even the rather specific version measured by IQ — involves a network of potentially thousands of genes, which probably takes at least millennia to evolve appreciably.
Given that so many genes, operating in different parts of the brain, contribute in some way to intelligence, it is hardly surprising that there is scant evidence of cognitive advance, at least over the lastyears. In fact, when it comes to potential differences in intelligence between groups, one of the remarkable dimensions of the human genome is how little genetic variation there is.
DNA research conducted in suggested a common, African ancestor for all humans alive today: Because of this relatively recent in evolutionary terms common ancestry, human beings share a remarkably high proportion of their genes compared to other mammals.
The single subspecies of chimpanzee that lives in central Africa, for example, has significantly more genetic variation than does the entire human race. Ultimately, race science depends on a third claim: If this case falls, the whole edifice — from Ashkenazi exceptionalism to the supposed inevitability of black poverty — collapses with it.
Before we can properly assess these claims, it is worth looking at the history of IQ testing. The public perception of IQ tests is that they provide a measure of unchanging intelligence, but when we look deeper, a very different picture emerges.
Alfred Binet, the modest Frenchman who invented IQ testing inknew that intelligence was too complex to be expressed in a single number. Early IQ tests were packed with culturally loaded questions.
Over time, the tests became less skewed and began to prove useful in measuring some forms of mental aptitude. But this tells us nothing about whether scores are mainly the product of genes or of environment.
Further information is needed. One way to test this hypothesis would be to see if you can increase IQ by learning. If so, this would show that education levels, which are purely environmental, affect the scores. It is now well-known that if you practise IQ tests your score will rise, but other forms of study can also help.
InSwiss researchers recruited 70 students and had half of them practise a memory-based computer game.
All 35 of these students saw their IQs increase, and those who practised daily, for the full 19 weeks of the trial, showed the most improvement. Another way to establish the extent to which IQ is determined by nature rather than nurture would be to find identical twins separated at birth and subsequently raised in very different circumstances.
But such cases are unusual, and some of the most influential research — such as the work of the 20th-century English psychologist Cyril Burt, who claimed to have shown that IQ was innate — has been dubious.I remain the official Senior Maverick for Wired, a magazine I helped co-found 25 years ago.
I do one article for Wired per year. My most recent published writings are listed here, in chronological order. My newest book, The Inevitable, a New York Times bestseller, is now available in paperback. The. The Cultivated Plant Code notes that the word cultivar is used in two different senses: first, as a "classification category" the cultivar is defined in Article 2 of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (, 8th edition) as follows: The basic category of cultivated plants whose nomenclature is governed by this Code is the cultivar.
Count is a San Francisco based producer who has been involved in just about every aspect of the music business. He has worked for indie and major labels, scored films, and has worked as producer, engineer, mixer, and remixer for artists such as DJ Shadow, Frank Sinatra, Radiohead, John Cale [Velvet.
Oscar Wilde's magical stories for children have often been dismissed as lesser works, but as examples of how important imagination is to us all – young and old alike – they are a delight. This is the text of my keynote speech at the 34th Chaos Communication Congress in Leipzig, December (You can also watch it on .
Magic Ink Information Software and the Graphical Interface by Bret Victor.