A study of biology includes the study of the chemical basis of living organisms, DNA. Other related sciences include microbiology and organic chemistry. The word science comes from a Latin word scientica, which means knowledge, or information.
Account for the differences in oxygen consumption observed between: Explain why each of these features is necessary. State the conclusions reached by Mendel in his work on the inheritance of characteristics.
Explain how each of the following deviates from these conclusions. Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning DNA. Describe each classical experiment and indicate how it provided evidence for the chemical nature of the gene.
Explain how the events of meiosis I account for the observations that led Mendel to formulate these laws. An organism is heterozygous at two genetic loci on different chromosomes. Explain how these alleles are transmitted by the process of mitosis to daughter cells.
Explain how these alleles are distributed by the process of meiosis to gametes. Labeled diagrams that are explained in your answer may be useful. A portion of specific DNA molecule consists of the following sequence of nucleotide triplets.
What would be the effect of a deletion or an addition in one of the DNA nucleotides?
What would be the effects of a substitution in one of the nucleotides? Describe the operon hypothesis and discuss how it explains the control of messenger RNA production and the regulation of protein synthesis in bacterial cells.
Explain how DNA meets each of the three criteria stated above. Select one of the criteria stated above and describe experimental evidence used to determine that DNA is the hereditary material.
Describe the biochemical composition, structure, and replication of DNA. Discuss how recombinant DNA techniques may be used to correct a point mutation. Describe the production and processing of a protein that will be exported from a eukaryotic cell.
Begin with the separation of the messenger RNA from the DNA template and end with the release of the protein at the plasma membrane. Describe the steps of protein synthesis, beginning with the attachment of a messenger RNA molecule to the small subunit of a ribosome and ending generalized with the release of the polypeptide from the ribosome.
Include in your answer a discussion of how the different types of RNA function in this process. The diagram below shows a segment of DNA with a total length of 4, base pairs. The arrows indicate reaction sites for two restriction enzymes enzyme X and enzyme Y.
Explain how the principles of gel electrophoresis allow for the separation of DNA fragments. Describe the results you would expect from the electrophoresis separation of fragments from the following treatments of the DNA segment above.
Assume that the digestions occurred under appropriate conditions and went to completion. The mechanism of action of restriction enzymes. The different results you would expect if a mutation occurred at the recognition site for enzyme Y. By using the techniques of genetic engineering, scientists are able to modify genetic materials so that a particular gene of interest from one cell can be incorporated into a different cell.
Describe a procedure by which this can be done. Explain the purpose of each step of your procedure. Describe how you could determine whether the gene was successfully incorporated.1.
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The College Board’s AP courses are college-level classes in a wide variety of subjects that you can take while still in high school. AP® BIOLOGY SCORING GUIDELINES.
Question 1. Trichomes are hairlike outgrowths of the epidermis of plants that are thought to provide protection against. ClassZone Book Finder. Follow these simple steps to find online resources for your book.
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