History[ edit ] InAdolphe Quetelet detailed the characteristics of l'homme moyen French"average man".
The Tests of Information Quality Reliable Information is Power You may have heard that "knowledge is power," or that information, the raw material of knowledge, is power. But the truth is that only some information is power: Information serves as the basis for beliefs, decisions, choices, and understanding our world.
If we make a decision based on wrong or unreliable information, we A method to determine reasonableness and not have power--we have defeat. If we eat something harmful that we believe to be safe, we can become ill; if we avoid something good that we believe to be harmful, we have needlessly restricted the enjoyment of our lives.
The same thing applies to every decision to travel, purchase, or act, and every attempt to understand. Source Evaluation is an Art Source evaluation--the determination of information quality--is something of an art. That is, there is no single perfect indicator of reliability, truthfulness, or value.
Instead, you must make an inference from a collection of clues or indicators, based on the use you plan to make of your source. If, for example, what you need is a reasoned argument, then a source with a clear, well-argued position can stand on its own, without the need for a prestigious author to support it.
On the other hand, if you need a judgment to support or rebut some position, then that judgment will be strengthened if it comes from a respected source.
If you want reliable facts, then using facts from a source that meets certain criteria of quality will help assure the probability that those facts are indeed reliable. Few sources will meet every criterion in the list, and even those that do may not possess the highest level of quality possible.
But if you learn to use the criteria in this list, you will be much more likely to separate the high quality information from the poor quality information. The CARS Checklist for Information Quality Credibility Because people have always made important decisions based on information, evidence of authenticity and reliability--or credibility, believability--has always been important.
If you read an article saying that the area where you live will experience a major earthquake in the next six months, it is important that you should know whether or not to believe the information.
Some questions you might ask would include, What about this source makes it believable or not? How does this source know this information? Why should I believe this source over another?
As you can see, the key to credibility is the question of trust. There are several tests you can apply to a source to help you judge how credible and useful it will be: Author's Credentials The author or source of the information should show some evidence of being knowledgeable, reliable, and truthful.
Here are some clues: Look for biographical information, the author's title or position of employment Author provides contact information email or snail mail address, phone number Organizational authorship from a known and respected organization corporate, governmental, or non-profit Author's reputation or standing among peers.
Author's position job function, title Note: Mere fame is not an indicator of credibility. Evidence of Quality Control Most scholarly journal articles pass through a peer review process, whereby several readers must examine and approve content before it is published.
Statements issued in the name of an organization have almost always been seen and approved by several people. But note the difference between, "Allan Thornton, employee of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Agency, says that a new ice age is near," and "The National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Agency said today that a new ice age is near.
Evidence of quality control of Internet material includes these items: Information presented on organizational web sites On-line journals that use refereeing peer review by editors or others Postings of information taken from books or journals that have a quality control process Note: Appearances can be deceiving.
Don't assume that a great-looking Web site is automatically credible.
Very professional and sophisticated Web page templates are available for a few dollars, so that anyone and his pet skunk can put up a site that looks expensive and authoritative. Good looks are not evidence of credibility. Metainformation Metainformation is information about information.
Information workers sometimes called knowledge workers all over the world are constantly poring over, processing, and evaluating information--and making notes. As the challenges produced by the increasing quantity of information continue, access to high quality metainformation will become increasingly important.
Metainformation can take many forms, but there are two basic types, summary and evaluative. Summary metainformation includes all the shortened forms of information, such as abstracts, content summaries, or even tables of contents.
This type of metainformation gives us a quick glance at what a work is about and allows us to consider many different sources without having to go through them completely.
Evaluative metainformation includes all the types that provide some judgment or analysis of content. This type includes recommendations, ratings, reviews, and commentaries.A Method to Determine Reasonableness and Feasibility of Noise Abatement at Special Use Locations Excel Worksheet User’s Guide The worksheet only requires that four (4) values be entered to determine whether or not noise abatement is reasonable at a special use location.
See how the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics standards are used in elementary classrooms across America. Elementary teachers tap the excitement and energy of children from kindergarten through grade 4 as they solve problems, learn to make connections between concepts, and communicate and reason mathematically.
Reasonable Compensation Analysis. for C Corporations and S Corporations. John C. Ramirez. of a reasonableness of compensation analysis is to estimate the amount of shareholder/employee com- The struggle to determine what is a reasonable. Lodestar method is a method adopted for calculating attorneys' fees where the court multiplies a reasonable hourly rate by a reasonable number of hours expended.
In order to calculate a fee award, the court must determine: a. the reasonableness of the hourly rate charged; and. Determination of price reasonableness through price or cost analysis is required even though the Price Analysis is the process of deciding if the asking price for a product or service is fair and performance to determine the probable cost to the vendor.
The goal is to form an opinion on whether the. Grantees may not use Fair Market Rents (FMRs) as a proxy to determine rent reasonableness. The rent reasonableness standard is different from FMRs. FMRs are gross rent estimates this method would work best under rapid re-housing programs as HPRP Listserv Rent Reasonableness Part 1.